The Bukharian Jews first appeared on the territory of present-day Tajikistan in the 17-18 centuries. About 40% of Tajik Jews are of Bukharian origin, and the rest are Ashkenazim who came from other parts of the Soviet Union during World War II.
In 1959, the Jewish population of Tajikistan was estimated at 13,400. In 1989 this number was reduced to 11,000.
Due to the unstable situation in the country in the late 1980s and early 1990s (from 1992 to 1997 there was a civil war), most of the Jews of Tajikistan emigrated to Israel, the United States of America, and Russia.
Jewish life is mostly centered in Dushanbe, Khujand, and Shakhrisabz.